August 11, 2020

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RH-Null Blood

What is RH-NULL BLOOD? Does this blood type exist?

RH-Null blood also known as golden blood, is the rarest type of blood and since the last fifty years, this blood has been detected in only 43 humans. Golden blood is indeed a new thing for many of us. Many of us think it is just a man illuminated thing that really does not exist. Blood in golden color, is this possible?  Let us know the reality..

Rh-Null blood cells

Function of Blood

Today we all know that our blood is a life-sustaining substance that consists of four components:

  • Red Blood Cells that carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide throughout the body.
  • White blood cells that protect the body from infections and agents
  • Platelets that help blood clot.
  • Plasma that carries salt and enzymes throughout the body.

This is a brief definition of blood, however its history is too vast. Before the 19th century, no one was aware of the proper definition of blood. That was the time when blood transfusion was carried out without proper knowledge. This also lead to the death of many patients mysteriously.

Identification of blood groups

In 1901 an Austrian Physician came to this field and studied the blood. Later in 1909, he successfully classified the blood into four main groups A, B, AB, and O. The difference in the blood group was determined through red blood cells because it contained proteins covering their surface called antigens and the presence or absence of such particular antigen specified the blood group in the body. The antigens present in our blood are molecules that are capable to produce specialized proteins called antibodies.

What makes the blood type positive and negative?

Type A blood contains A antigens, B contained B antigens and AB contains both the antigens whereas O contains no antigens. Besides this, RBC in the body spot another antigen which is RH factors. RH stands for Rhesus factors RhD protein. The presence of RhD proteins in the blood makes it a positive type whereas its absent makes it negative. This typical combination introduces 8 different blood groups types that are A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+.AB-, O+, O-.  

Rh-null blood group types

Now mentioned above are the eight types of blood, how they work and why a person does if transfused with the wrong blood group is a long discussion. Now the question here arises aside all these 8 groups of blood, is there any 9th group, the RH-null ?

What makes the blood group Rh-null?

The major 8 blood types are further divided into many distinct varieties and are classified into millions of blood types on the multitude of antigens combination. The largest blood group system is the Rh blood group system. The RhD protein in the blood refers to one of 61 potential antigens in the Rh system. The most interesting thing is that nearly 99.99 % population in the world have Rh blood group system. There are 61 independent antigens present in our blood types. Rh- null blood is a type of blood that lacks all 61 antigens. This thing makes this blood rare.

History of Rh-null blood type:

This rare blood group was discovered in 1961 in a pregnant lady in Australia. Later after decades,this blood type was diagnosed in a fourteen years old boy. At that time the doctors were shocked to witness the boy lacking the blood group.

Rh-Null and Normal Blood comparison

The doctors examined the genetic basis of this blood group thoroughly. The blood group was formed due to complete random mutations. This type of blood group was also declared to be found in people with some type of illness. Although the reality and the reason are yet not clear.

Why is this blood called golden blood?

This blood is not in golden color. It is too rare. Since the last fifty years only 43 people in the world are diagnosed to have this type of blood. This blood is quite expensive and rare. Scientists use this for researches and it is also important for some medicines. It is worth its weight in gold.

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This blood is also a universal donor because it lacks Rh antigens. Hence the person having golden blood can donate blood to anyone with any blood type.

What is it to live with Rh-null blood type?

Some people think it is lucky to live with this type of blood but the reality is quite different. Living with this type of blood is too dangerous. If a Rh-null carrier requires a blood transfusion it will be hard for him to find a respective donor and it is difficult to transport blood internationally. The people who have this blood have a family history. This blood group runs in families. Till today 14 families in the world have this rare blood type.

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